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Clanity Blog News & Events

Blockchain Layer 1 vs. Layer 2: Understanding Scaling Solutions

30.10.23 12:00 AM By Clanity Team

The world of blockchain and cryptocurrency has witnessed exponential growth in recent years. As the number of users and transactions continues to increase, the question of scalability has become a pressing concern. Blockchain networks that prioritize decentralization and security often struggle to achieve high throughput, leading to the Blockchain Trilemma: the challenge of simultaneously achieving decentralization, security, and scalability. However, there is hope on the horizon as developers and experts are actively working on scaling solutions. These solutions can be categorized into two main types: Layer 1 and Layer 2 scaling solutions.

What is Layer 1?

Layer 1 refers to the base level of a blockchain architecture. It is the main structure of the blockchain network itself. Examples of Layer 1 blockchains include Bitcoin, Ethereum, and BNB Chain. Layer 1 solutions aim to directly modify the rules and mechanisms of the original blockchain in order to improve scalability and throughput.

What is Layer 2?

Layer 2, on the other hand, refers to networks built on top of Layer 1 blockchains. These networks operate independently but are still connected to the underlying blockchain. Layer 2 solutions are designed to facilitate transactions away from the main chain, thereby reducing the burden on the Layer 1 network and improving scalability.

Why is Blockchain Scalability Important?

To understand the importance of blockchain scalability, let's consider an analogy. Imagine a highway between a city and its fast-growing suburb. As the number of vehicles using the highway increases, congestion becomes a common problem, leading to longer travel times. Similarly, as the number of users and transactions on a blockchain network increases, the network can become slow and expensive to use. This is especially true for Layer 1 blockchains that rely on a Proof of Work mechanism. Therefore, improving scalability is crucial for blockchain networks to meet the growing demand and provide a seamless user experience.

Challenges Faced by Layer 1 Networks

Layer 1 blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum face scalability challenges due to their distributed consensus model. All transactions on these networks must be verified by multiple nodes before they can be confirmed. This process, known as mining, requires significant computational power and time. As a result, during periods of high network congestion, users may experience slower confirmation times and higher transaction fees.

Layer 1 Scaling Solutions

To address the scalability issues faced by Layer 1 blockchains, various scaling solutions have been proposed and implemented. These solutions aim to increase the throughput and overall network capacity. One approach is to transition from a Proof of Work consensus mechanism to a Proof of Stake mechanism. This transition can significantly increase the number of transactions per second (TPS) while reducing processing fees. However, there is ongoing debate within the crypto community regarding the long-term implications of Proof of Stake.

Another approach to Layer 1 scaling is to introduce protocol updates. For example, Bitcoin implemented the Segregated Witness (SegWit) update, which increased the block size limit and improved transaction throughput. However, larger changes to the blockchain, such as increasing the block size, often require a hard fork, resulting in the creation of two versions of the blockchain.

Understanding Layer 2 Scaling Solutions

Layer 2 scaling solutions operate on top of Layer 1 blockchains and provide additional capacity to process transactions. These solutions work in parallel or independently of the main chain, reducing the burden on the Layer 1 network. There are several types of Layer 2 solutions, including rollups, sidechains, state channels, and nested blockchains.


Zero-knowledge rollups are a common type of Layer 2 solution. They bundle multiple off-chain transactions into a single transaction that is submitted to the main chain. Validity proofs are used to ensure the integrity of these transactions. Assets remain on the original chain, and a bridging smart contract confirms the rollup's functioning. This approach combines the security of the Layer 1 network with the efficiency of the rollup.


Sidechains are independent blockchain networks that have their own validators. These networks operate alongside the main chain and can process transactions independently. However, trust is required as the bridging smart contract on the main chain does not verify the validity of the sidechain network.

State Channels

State channels provide a two-way communication environment between transacting parties. A portion of the underlying blockchain is sealed off and connected to an off-chain transaction channel. Transactions can be executed off-chain, without immediately being submitted to the main chain. Once the transactions are complete, the final state of the channel is broadcasted to the blockchain for validation. State channels improve transaction speed and increase the overall capacity of the network.

Nested Blockchains

Nested blockchains are secondary chains that operate on top of the main blockchain. These chains follow the rules set by the parent chain and process transactions independently. The main chain's role is limited to dispute resolution when necessary. This approach allows for efficient transaction processing while leveraging the security of the main chain.

Limitations of Layer 1 and Layer 2 Scaling Solutions

While Layer 1 and Layer 2 scaling solutions offer significant improvements to blockchain scalability, they also come with their own limitations. Layer 1 solutions require consensus among validators and may face resistance to protocol changes. Additionally, certain Layer 1 changes, such as transitioning to Proof of Stake, may have unintended consequences. Layer 2 solutions, while offering quicker scalability improvements, may compromise the security and trustworthiness of the original blockchain.

The Future of Blockchain Scaling

As blockchain technology continues to evolve, the need for both Layer 1 and Layer 2 scaling solutions remains. While some blockchains are already implementing scalability improvements, it will take time for major networks to achieve significant scalability. In the near future, large chains like Ethereum are likely to dominate due to their established user and developer communities. However, targeted Layer 2 solutions will play a vital role in improving scalability and meeting specific use case requirements.

Blockchain scalability is a critical concern as the popularity of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology continues to grow. Layer 1 and Layer 2 scaling solutions offer different approaches to address this challenge. Layer 1 solutions aim to directly modify the main blockchain, while Layer 2 solutions operate on top of the main chain. By combining these approaches, blockchain networks can achieve higher throughput and scalability. However, it is essential to consider the trade-offs between security, decentralization, and scalability when implementing these solutions. As blockchain technology advances, the future holds exciting possibilities for further improving scalability and unlocking the full potential of decentralized applications.

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